Archivos de la categoría biologia

Biology Project: Urinary System

For this last term, our biology teacher gave us a creative project to work on. This consisted on making a model of the urinary system with trash. To make this model, we went through a large process. First, all throughout the weekend we looked up for things that we thought it could be useful to our project like for example can of coke, sponges, caps and straws. We collected many things but we didn’t use all of them. It was not easy for us to decide which element was the correct one for each organ because we had to choose the one that fitted better for each. After a long time of research we had decided how our project would be. Carefully we started pasting all the objects we had chosen previously. We used an old sponge for the two kidneys. We cut the sponge in two equal pieces to form to kidneys that are identically to each other. Then, we used a big cup of jam to create the bladder. Furthermore, to make the urethra we used small caps of cokes and water that we had recycled. Moreover, we used many straws to make the aorta and the vena cava. To give color to both of them we covered the straws with elastic bands red and blue. And to make the renal artery and the renal vein we also used old elastic bands. To conclude, we made the urethra with an old wine cork. We cut it into two and used one half to make the organ. After all this work, we started to label each organ so that any person that looks at our project could recognize each of the organs. Finally, our project is know ready to present, here is a picture of it! Hope you like our work!

Functions of the organs:


  • The kidneys are two organs found on the left and right sides of the body in vertebrates. They are located near the middle of your back, just below the ribcage. They receive blood from the paired renal arteries; blood exits into the paired renal veins. Each kidney is attached to a ureter, a tube that carries excreted urine to the bladder. Kidneys produce hormones, absorb minerals, flitter blood and produce urine. Every kidneys process about 200 quarts of blood to sift out about 2 quarts of waste products and extra water. The waste and extra water become urine, which flows to your bladder through tubes called ureters. Each adult kidney contains around one million nephrons.


  • The ureter is a tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder. There are two ureters, one attached to each kidney. The upper half of the ureter is located in the abdomen and the lower half is located in the pelvic area. The ureter is about 10 to 12 inches long in the average adult. The tube has thick walls composed of a fibrous, a muscular, and a mucus coat, which are able to contract.


  • The bladder, also known as the urinary bladder, is an expandable muscular sac that stores urine before it is excreted out of the body through the urethra. It is located in the lower abdominal area near the pelvic bones.
  • Urine is made in the kidneys, and travels down two tubes called ureters to the bladder. The bladder stores urine, allowing urination to be infrequent and voluntary.
  • During urination, the bladder muscles contract, and two sphincters (valves) open to allow urine to flow out.


  • In both genders, the urethra works as a tube connecting the urinary bladder to the genitals. The bladder collects and stores urine until it is ready to be discharged through the urethra. 


  • The male urethra connects the urinary bladder to the penis. Once the bladder becomes full, urine flows through the urethra and leaves the body at the urethral meatus, which is located at tip of the penis. The urethra is more than just a urinary duct; it also serves as a conduit for semen and sperm during sexual acts.


  • The female urethra is quite a bit shorter than its male counterpart and its opening is situated between a woman’s clitoris and vagina.

Renal vein:

  • There are two renal veins, a left and a right. They branch off the inferior vena cava and take away (drain)  deoxygenated blood ( without oxygen) from the kidneys. As they enter the kidneys, each vein separates into two parts. The posterior veins assist in draining ( taking away) the back section of each kidney, while the anterior veins assist the front part. These veins also are responsible for draining blood from the ureter, which transports urine away from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.

Renal Arteries:

  • There are two blood vessels leading off from the abdominal aorta that go to the kidneys. The renal artery is one of these two blood vessels. The renal artery enters through the hilum, which is located where the kidney curves inward in a concave shape. Under normal circumstances, once the renal artery enters through the hilum, it splits into two main branches, which each then split into numerous smaller arteries, which deliver blood to different areas of the kidneys, known as nephrons. Once the blood has been processed here, it is sent back through the renal vein to the inferior vena cava and to the right side section of the heart.

Abdominal Aorta:

  • The aorta supplies the blood that is being filtered by the kidneys. Because the blood is being filtered by the kidneys, it’s important that they be located somewhere that a lot of blood can filter through, and that a sufficiently big artery run through it. This is why the kidneys are located just below the ribs in the upper abdomen and that a major branch of the aorta runs through.

Inferior vena cava

  • The inferior vena cava is a large vein that carries de-oxygenated blood from the lower body to the heart. De-oxygenated blood means most of the oxygen has been removed by tissues, and therefore the blood is darker.
  • Its walls are rigid and has valves so the blood does not flow down via gravity.

I have worked with Juana Zufriategui and this is our project:

Respiration and Gas exchange

October 4th

Respiration + gas exchange

Activitie 11.3 ( book page 143)

A1: It is important to boil water so that any dissolve air can be driven away

A2: Sugar solution must be cooled before adding the yeast because otherwise the yeast will be cooled and it won’t respire.

A3: Liquid paraffin is added to isolate the solution of yeast in sugar from the air

A4: In apparatus A the limewater solution turned cloudy, showing that the yeast (alive)  respire carbon dioxide and the limewater absorbed it. In the apparatus B the limewater solution remained clear, showing that the yeast (dead because it was cooked) did not respire and therefore the limewater did not change as it did not absorbe carbon dioxide

A5:  In the sugar solution containing living yeast I would expect to find ethanol at the end of the experiment as the yeast respire (anaerobically) and this process produces is characterized by the production ethanol as a result


Human Physiology- Stomach

Our Biology teacher, Ceci Adem, told us that we had to prepare a project for this second term. We were divided  into groups of 3/4  persons each . Each group had to choose an organ to work with and create a digital poster with information of it. Moreover, we had to record ourselves with Screencast o matic and explain our project. The organ that we’ve choose is the Stomach. I’ve worked with Bautista Buljebich and Alexis Stankiewich and this is our project.

Note Taking- Respiration

These are the notes that I have written the 3 last classes about the new topic we are seeing in Biology which is respiration.

Taking Notes Respiration (NOT BREATHING)




  • very specific shape, double membrane.


  • Place where respiration occurs.


  • It’s in the cytoplasm.




  • chemical reaction.


  • For respiration we need glucose and oxygen.


  • Respiration connected with nutrition and breathing.


  • Glucose + Oxygen = water + energy + carbon dioxide


  • Formula: C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 = 6H2O + 6CO2 + E 38ATP




  • Respiration is the chemical reaction that breaks down nutrients molecules in living cells to release energy


  • Energy comes from the food we eat


  • Humans have chemical energy inside their bodies


  • The main energy providing nutrient is glucose, it contains a lot of chemical energy


  • There are two types of respiration: aerobic and anaerobic





  • To use energy you have to transfer it to ATP


  • The energy that its obtain because of respiration is kept in ATP


  • Adenosine Triphosphate


  • From 1 molecule of glucose we can obtain 38 molecules of ATP (aerobic)


  • Aerobic Respiration: the release of a relatively large amount of energy in cells by the breakdown of food substances in the pretense of oxygen


Glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water

C6hH2O6+ 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O


  • Anaerobic Respiration: the release small amount of energy by the breakdown of food substances in the absence of oxygen


  • Anaerobic respiration in muscles during exercise:


Glucose = lactic acid + energy

C6H12O6 = 2C3H6O3


  • Muscles respire anaerobically when exercising vigorously, because the blood cannot supply enough oxygen to maintain aerobic respiration.


  • We can also see anaerobic respiration when we cook bread.


  • Anaerobic respiration in yeast (Levadura)


Glucose = ethanol + Carbon Dioxide + Energy

C6H12O6 = 2C2H5OH + energy











State of Mind- Biology

In our biology class we work with our practical skills booklet, in States of Matter Basics. The task was to enter to a link and we play a game which shows clearly the States of Matter. After that we had to write a summary including illustrations that describes the “differences and similarities between solids, liquids and gases on a molecular level”. I work with Valentina Re, this is our work:

States of Matter Basics
The three states of matter that we can find are solids, gases and liquids.

Between them we can find differences and similarities. On the one hand we can see differences between them. The first one is that the solid state is rigid and all the molecules are packed together. However, the liquid and gas states are not rigid at all and they don’t have a fixed shape. Furthermore, another difference we can find is that in solid and liquid states there is a fixed volume and molecules can’t expand so much. On the contrary, in gas states there is no fixed volume, molecules move a lot and they are not packed together.

On the other hand, we can also find similarities. One of them is that when the temperature increases, all the molecules spread out and separate from each other. However, it varies the time each state takes to do so.


Taking Notes Biology- 15/3


Biology Taking Notes:

  • Variation: differences between individuals of the same species.
  • Four types of Variation: Continuous, Discontinuous, Genetic and Environmental.
  • Continuous Variation: is a type of variation were the living organisms can’t be classify into many groups.
  • Discontinuous Variation: is a type of variation were the living organisms can be classify into many different many groups.
  • Genetic Variation: is the information given by all de genes we have inside. That information can change with a mutation.
  • Mutation: when the genetic mayorías of the cell change suddenly.
  • Environmental Variation: the Variation that can happen in our body is because of the environment.
  • We have to type of Selection: natural and artificial.

    Artificial Selection: made by man to increase production


    Natural Selection: it’s selected by nature, nature selects the fittest.

Biology- Note Taking


Taking notes

Descent: living organism that come after us/ that we produce

  • Descent with modification:  we descent of our parents but we are decadent with modification because we are not exactly the same at our parents, we are a mixture of both. Sometimes we are different because people mutate
  • Common Descent: all the living organisms that live nowadays have come from the same original living organisms.
  • Mimicry: the ability some living organisms have to defend themselves by pretend to look as something dangerous.
  • Common ancestor: Charles Darwin said that we all come from 1 ancestor. We all come from 1. We are all made from de same material