Archivo de la categoría: history

Rearmament

Last week, our history teacher Lenny, diveded us into seven groups of 3. Each group had a different topic which it had to explain. As regards your topic you had to answer some guide questions so that your presentation will be complete. I’ve worked with Ramiro Aizpiri and Fransisco Montoya and the topic we had to analyse was how did Germany rearmed.

Here is the guide we had to follow and also our presentation.

Unit 9.1: Weimar Republic Sources

This are our analysis of the sources found along the unit 9.1 of our History Coursebook, about the German Weimar Republic. I’ve worked with Anouk de Laferrere

Source 1:

In 1918, although Ebert was unwilling to sign the Treaty of Versailles, he and his Weimar Republic accepted and brought Germany to an economic disaster. This source is an extract from Hitler’s biography, which criticises the Treaty of Versialles signed in 1919, after World War 1. As this treaty punished and humilliated the German economy, empire and people, Adolf Hitler, a German leader, hated it.

Source 3:

In 1923, the French and Belgian troops accesed the Ruhr, an area under the terms of Treaty of Versailles, and took the money owed by the Germans in raw materials. This fragment shows the memories of a German woman who lived in the Ruhr during the French occupation. She retells the sufferings that the French caused. The violence, the hunger, the poverty, the humilliation and the abuse that the society was submitted to.

Source 4:

By signing the Treaty of Versailles in 1918, Britain & France, especially, gained a lot of power, bringing Germany to her collapse. This picture is a British cartoon from 1921. It shows how was the relationship between France & Britain and Germany. While Germany is suffering in a devastating state, the leaders of France & Britain, are not willing to help her, taking advantage of her situation at that time.

Source 9:

In 1923 the German population was submited to an extreme hyperinflation, in which as it had not goods to trade, money begun to be worthless. Source 9 expresses the German thoughts about the causes of hyperinflation. They found the repartations, which they had to pay due to the Treaty of Versailles, and the Weimar Republic, for accepting that responsability, blameworthy.

Source 13:

After the Kaiser’s time, in 1920’s, Germany had expercienced a golden age for cinema. There arised one of its greatest international stars, Marlene Dietrich. Source 13 shows a poster from one of her movies. The movie is called “Blonde Venus” directed and produced by Josef Von Sternberg.

By: Luli Caviglione,  Anouk de Laferrere and Juana Zufriategui

The League of Nations

In the History class, our teacher Lenny, gave us a task that was to watch a video that was on her blog and also, to answers some questions that she put in a SlideShare. You could be alone or with the person sitting next to you. I decided to be alone.

Here is the video that we had to wached:

And here are the Questions and the Answers:

 

  • What were the aims of the league?

 

The aims of the league were:

  • To discourage aggression from any nation
  • To encourage countries to cooperate, especially in business and trade
  • To encourage nations to disarm
  • To improve the living and working conditions of people in all parts of the world

     2) What happened to Wilson when he returned to USA after signing the treaty of Versailles?

When Wilson was back in USA he had some problems.  One problem that Wilson had was that before USA could even join the League, he needed the approval of his congress. And in the USA the idea of the league was not so popular at all, so USA never joined because the Parliament never accepted the decision.

      3) Why did German immigrants in USA not want to joined the league?

The German immigrants in the USA didn’t want to joined the league because they were from Germany and the League was supposed to enforce the treaty of versailles and the treaty of versailles punished Germany, so that’s why the German immigrants disagree with the USA joining to the League.

     4) What economic reason USA give to say out of the league?

The economic reasons that USA give to say out of the league was that when a county does not obey the league they had to stop trading with that country, that was really bad for USA economy because they trade a lot and if they stop trading the USA economy is the one who will suffer.

     5) How did Americans feel about Imperialism in Europe?

The Americans feel that the league would be dominated by Britain and France, and would be called to help and defended their empires and the problem was that the Americans were Anti- empires.

     6) Why did Poland invade Vilna? Why did the league not act about it?

Poland invaded Vilna because Poland wanted to take control. Most of Vilna’s inhabitants were Polish. When Poland invaded Vilna, the league didn’t act about it because France saw Poland  as a possible ally against Germany in the future so she didn’t want to opose her. And Britain was not prepared either to act alone.

     7) Why was Upper Silesia an important region for Germany and Poland?

Upper Silesia was an important region for Germany and Poland because it was the border between Germany and Poland. The region was mixed with both Germans and Poles. Under the previous rule of the German empire, the poles had been discriminated by the Germans making them second class citizens.

     8) How did the league solve the problem with Vilna?

The League of Nations couldn’t solve the problem. They didn’t solve the problem because they couldn’t take and persuade the polish so that they live the city. The polish didn’t leave Vilna until WW2 started.

    9) What did the league decide to do about the Aaland Island?

Finland and Sweden were on a dispute over the Aaland Island. What the league decided to do  was that the Island should belong to Finland so that the avoid a war between them. It was not easy because both sizes were threatening to go to war but finally Sweden accepted the decision.

    10) Why did Mussolini invade Greece in the Corfu conflict?

Mussolini invade Greece in the Corfu conflict because he was furious and blame the Greek government for the murder of Tellini and his team. Mussolini, the italian leader was furious and demanded to pay compensations and execute the murderers. But the Greeks had no idea who the murderers were. So the 31 of August Mussolini bombarded and then occupied the Greek island Corfu.

  11) Why was the League criticised because of the decision of the Greek island Corfu?

Because this showed that the weakest of the powers, Italy, could get its way if they were backed up by Britain and France who agreed to sacrifice justice for cooperation.

  12) How did Geneva Protocol weaken the league?

It weakened The league because there were elections in Britain and in the elections the new Conservative government refused to sign the protocol, because the protocol said that if two members were in dispute they would have to ask the league to sort out the disagreement and they would have to accept the council decision. The new conservative government refused to sing it because they were worried that Britain would be forced to agree on something that was not on its own interests. That’s why the League was weekend, because they were going to take and a very important decision so that things like this didn’t happen any more but they couldn’t so a very important plan was cancelled, so they didn’t progress at all and this disputes could happen again and start a war.

   13) Why did Greece invaded Bulgaria in 1925?

The Greeks invaded Bulgaria in 1935 because there was an incident on the border in which some Greeks  soldiers were killed, so they wanted revenge.

   14) Why did the Greece complain that the league “seemed to have one rule for the largest states and another for the smaller a ones”?

They complain because it was unfair that the small states like her, didn’t had the same treats and preferences that the big states like for example Italy. There should be one rule for all, the small and the big countries should be treated the same way.

 

Essay Writting- The Big Three

In our history class, our teacher Lenny, asked us to write an essay about The Big Three. This is my essay:

Essay question: “How successful was Wilson in achieving his aims at Versailles? Explain your answer.

As we all know, Wilson had many ideas like for example the 14 points. He couldn’t achieve them all because he had to take decisions with the winners that were the Prime Minister of Great Britain, David Lloyd George, with the Prime Minister of France Georges Clemenceau and he himself, the president of United States. In the following essay I will show you how successful he was in achieving his aims, the ones he obtained and the ones he didn’t.

On the one hand, Wilson achieved many of his ideas. He accomplished The League of Nations,this was one of his main ideas. The League of Nations was an organization that Wilson proposed to keep the peace between countries to avoid another war.The second idea he obtained was Poland to have open seas and to be independent. He thought this was very useful because he wanted new countries to be created so that they couldtrade with the empires. Furthermore another of the points he achieved was France to regain Alsace- Lorraine. Alsace Lorraine was a German colony because in 1870 France and Prussia, which is now part of Germany, were at war and Prussia won it. So as a compensation for winning the war France had to give Alsace Lorraine to Prussia. Wilson thought this was unfair and that’s why he proposed to give it back to France and of course France loved this idea. Moreover, another idea he supported was disarmament. He wanted disarmament to be accomplished because this would lower the possibilities of another war and would achieve peace between countries. Although he wanted this for all the countries he only got it for Germany, she could only have 100.000 soldiers in her army and they had to be volunteers. Finally the last point he accomplished was Self- Determination. He wanted that small countries like for example Poles, Czechs and Slovaks could rule themselves rather than be part of an empire, in this case the Austria- Hungarian empire. He wanted this for all the countries but he could only achieve it for Germany’s colonies.

On the other hand, you have seen Wilson accomplished many of his ideas but there are some he didn’t. He didn’t achieve a just and lasting peace. For him this was very important because he wanted war to end peacefully to avoid a second one. This idea he had wasn’t achieved because of War Guilt, which was a term of the Treaty of Versailles that said that Germany had all the blame of the war. Also he didn’t achieve free access to the seas because Great Britain and France didn’t agree with it. Moreover, he didn’t obtain complete disarmament, he only got Germany to disarmed. Furthermore, he also didn’t guarantee self- determination for all the world, he only got it for Germany’s colonies. In addition, Wilson wanted strengthen democracy in defeated countries but he didn’t achieve it. He thought that the key to peace in Europe was to strengthen democracy in the defeated countries so that their people would not let their leaders cause another war.Finally, he didn’t obtain free trade between countries. He wanted this so that countries could work together and also create more work for the civilians.

To conclude, Wilson had many ideas but not all were accomplished, I think he didn’t achieve the most important that was not being too harsh with Germany. because he didn’t obtain that on the Treaty of Versailles.

The Big Three Conversation

In our History class, we have been reading about the Treaty of Versailles and The Big Threes. After reading about those topics, Lenny asked us to write a conversation in groups between the Big Three, that were the winners of the war,Georges Clemenceau, Prime Minister of France, David Lloyd George the Prime Minister of Great Britain and Woodrow Wilson the president of United States.

We should included what they thought their countries should get as a compensation for war, their point of view about the fourteen points and the type of punishment Germany should receive. After making the convesation we had to record it in a voicethread us we were one of the members of the Paris Peace Conference. We were also asked to put a slideshare with the process of the work we did and to put some personal comments about the project. I did this with Alexis Stankiewich and Gonzalo Irazusta.

Here is the voicethread we record:

https://voicethread.com/share/8025441/

My comments about the project:

  1. Well in my opinion, i think that this was a better way to study because we could understand and learn in a funny way. I think that if we had studied from the book we would have learned but not so detail, specially about the Big Three. I think that if we have read from the book we would not undrestand the topic as much as we did, that’s why i consider this was a great new option to learn
  2. What i really enjoyed of this project was when we were in class with my group and we investigated the topic, with the book and pages on the internet. I think we could all share what we think and we worked together as a group. Also i liked to learn more about the presidents of the Big Three. Knowing about them made us realized how the thought and what were their ideas at that time and at that specific moment of history.
  3. I really liked and enjoy the way we did it I think I learn in a differnt and funny. In my opinion I will not change nothing at all i think the children of Junior 7, will learn and have fun as much as we did.

Paris Peace Conference

In history class, Lenny, told us to watch a video and then answer the questions that were in her blog together with the video.

Here is the video:

And here are the questions and my answers:

1) War guilt.Explain the arguments FOR and AGAINST this term.

 The arguments FOR are that Germany is responsible for the war that started in late July, early August in 1914. It didn’t take much for Germany to declare war on russia, then on france and then invade Belgium, this was only a matter of days. It was pretty clear that Germany was already mobilized to do this without much provocation, at that point, it was really based on Russian mobilization. Those who would argue this was a little strong
 The arguments AGAINST are that Germany definitely played a role in the war but she didn’t start the war. First you have the assassination of the Archduke of Austria Hungary, Franz Ferdinand and the really  ultimatum A-H sent to Serbia were the most important events of WW1 that led A-H to declare war, she seemed as if she wanted to.Then you have the Austro- Hungarians who put out this very hard terms to the Serbians, brings these people to justice immediately. Furthermore, the Russians didn’t stay out of this conflict and she started mobilising her troops, which gave Germany the perfect pretext to justify her actions.

2) Which term followed War Guilt? How much would it be today? What consequences/impact did it have on Germany?

War Guilt followed the term REPARATIONS because when she lost the war she had to pay her enemy’s ( USA, France, GB and Italy) with gold, land, paper currency and resources. They had to pay a lot of money it would be what in 2013 was 400 billions. One of the consequences was that Germany had to paid a lot of money, this is not so much for Germany’s economy, but after war Germany was completly destroied and with a very poor economy.

3) Why were the victors planning to prevent a future war with Germany in the Treaty?

France, GB, Italy and USA, the winners, obviously wanted to avoid a war with Germany because if she recovered of the damage of the war she would be furious , strong and she would take revenge and they didn’t wanted that to happened.

What territorial losses did Germany have to face? What happened to the German colonies? What did Wilson dislike about this?

Germany loses many colonies such as,  of Poland, Alsace-Lorraine, that belonged to France, she had to return it, the colonies she had in southwest Africa, one in China and also in the Pacific. All this colonies were given to the allies that were the victors. Woodrow Wilson, USA president at that moment, disliked how the allies distributed the territory giving it from one empire to another, because he wanted those territories to have self-determination.

5) Which new nations were created after WW1?

The European map changed a lot because many nations were created. The Ottoman and Austro- Hungarian empire dissolved and the territory was divided into many countries. The new countries created were, Austria, Czechoslovakia,  Hungary, Yugoslavia and some territory in Russia was divided into different countries.